Primary Texts


Acts of Mark, ed. Allen Dwight Callahan. In The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles: Harvard Divinity School

Studies, ed. F. Bovon, A.G. Brock, and C.R. Matthews, 62-85. Cambridge, MA: Harvard

University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1999.


Apophthegmata Patrum, ed. John Wortley. In The Book of the Elders: Sayings of

the Desert Fathers: The Systematic Collection. Collegeville, MN: Cistercian

Publications, 2012.


Athanasius, Life of Antony, ed. Robert C. Gregg. In Athanasius: The Life of Antony and

The Letter to Marcellinus. New York, NY: Paulist Press, 1980.


Athanasius of Alexandria, Apologia ad Constantium, ed. A. Robertson. In NPNF 4. New York,

NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1907.


Augustine of Hippo, Confessions, ed. David Vincent Meconi. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press,



Benjamin of Alexandria, On Cana of Galilee: A Sermon by the Coptic Patriarch Benjamin I, ed. Maged

Mikhail. In CCR 23.3 (2002): 66-93.  


Cyprian of Carthage, Letters, ed. Rose Berard Donna. Washington, DC: The Catholic University

of America Press, 1964.


Ethiopian Synaxarion, ed. E.A. Wallis Budge. In The Book of the Saints of the Ethiopian Church. New York,

NY: G. Olms, 1976.


History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria, ed. B. Evetts. In PO 1, (1904):

105-211; 383-518; 5 (1910): 2-215.


Isaac the Presbyter, Life of Samuel of Kalamun, ed. Anthony Alcock. Warminster: Aris

& Phillips Ltd, 1983.


John of Nikiu, The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu, ed. R.H. Charles. Merchantville,

NJ: Evolution Publishing, 2007.


Kebra Nagast, ed. Miguel F. Brooks. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1995.


Life of Daniel of Scetis, ed. Tim Vivian. In Witness to Holiness: Abba Daniel of Scetis. Kalamazoo, MI:

Cistercian Publications, 2008.


Life of Pachomius, ed. Armand Veilleux. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1980.


Mena of Nikiu, The Life of Isaac of Alexandria, ed. D.N. Bell. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1988.


Pseudo-Dioscorus of Alexandria, Panegyric on Macarius of Tkôw, ed. David W. Johnson. In CSCO 415-

                  416. Louvain: Secrétariat du Corpus SCO, 1980.


Shenoute of Atripe, Canons, ed.  Bentley Layton. In The Canons of Our Fathers: Monastic Rules of

Shenoute. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.


________________, Discourses, eds. David Brakke & Andrew Crislip. Selected Discourses of

Shenoute the Great: Community, Theology, and Social Conflict in Late Antique Egypt. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 2015.


Timothy Aelurus, Against Chalcedon, eds. R.Y. Ebied and L.R. Wickham. In After Chalcedon:

Studies in Theology and Church History Offered to Professor Albert van Roey, ed. And

trans. C. Laga, J.A. Munitiz, & L. Van Rompay, Leuven: Peeters, 1985, 115-166.



Survey Books


Atiya, Aziz. History of Eastern Christianity. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2010.


Burton, Keith Augustus. The Blessing of Africa: The Bible and African Christianity. Downers Grove, IL:

InterVarsity Press, 2007.


Hoyland, Robert G. Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and

Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press, 1998.


Jenkins, Philip. The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle

East, Africa, and Asia- and How It Died. New York, NY: HarperOne, 2009.


Johnson, Scott F. Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Greek. Burlington,

VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2015.


Oden, Thomas C. How Africa Shaped the Christian Mind: Rediscovering the African Seedbed of

Western Christianity. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2007.


Usry, Glen & Craig S. Keener. Black Man’s Religion: Can Christianity Be Afrocentric? Downers Grove, IL:

InterVarsity Press, 1996.


Yamauchi, Edwin M. Africa and the Bible. Ada, MI: Baker Publishing, 2006.






Bagnall, Roger. Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press, 2007.


Brakke, David. Athanasius and Asceticism. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.


Davis, Stephen J. Coptic Christology in Practice: Incarnation and Divine Participation in Late Antique and

               Medieval Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.


_____________. The Early Coptic Papacy: The Egyptian Church and its Leadership in Late Antiquity.

     Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2004.


Foat, Michael. “I Myself Have Seen: The Representation of Humanity in the Writings of Apa

Shenoute of Atripe.” Ph.D. diss., Brown University, Providence, 1996.


Frankfurter, David. Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt. Leiden: Brill, 1998.


_______________. Religion in Roman Egypt: Assimilation and Resistance. Princeton, NJ:

Princeton University Press, 1998.


Goehring, James E. Ascetics, Society, and the Desert: Studies in Early Egyptian Monasticism. Harrisburg,

PA: Trinity Press International, 1999.


Guirguis, Fatin Morris. “The Vision of Theophilus: Resistance Through Orality Among

the Persecuted Copts.” Ph.D. diss., Florida Atlantic University, 2010.


Harmless, William. Desert Christians: An Introduction to the Literature of Early Monasticism. Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 2004.


Iskander, John. “Islamization in Medieval Egypt: The Copto-Arabic ‘Apocalypse of Samuel’ as a

Source for the Social and Religious History of Medieval Copts.” Medieval Encounters 4

(1998): 219-227.


Mikhail, Maged S.A. From Christian Egypt to Islamic Egypt: Religion, Identity, and Politics

after the Arab Conquest. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2014.


Papaconstantinou, Arietta. “‘They Shall Speak the Arabic Language and Take Pride In It’:

                  Reconsidering the Fate of Coptic After the Arab Conquest.” Le Muséon 120 (2007): 273-



Pearson, Birger A. & James E. Goehring. The Roots of Egyptian Christianity. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress

Press, 1986.


Roberts, C.H. Manuscript, Society and Belief in Early Christian Egypt. Oxford: Oxford

University Press, 1979.


Van der Vliet, Jacques. “The Copts: ‘Modern Sons of the Pharaohs?’” In Religious Origins of

Nations? The Christian Communities of the Middle East, ed. Bas ter Haar Romeny, 279-

290, Leiden: Brill, 2010.





Adams, William Y. Nubia: Corridor to Africa. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.


_______________. “The Twilight of Nubian Christianity.” In Nubia: Récentes

Recherches Actes du colloque Nubiologique International au Musée National de

Varsovie 19-22 Juin 1972, ed. Kazimierz Michałowski, 11-17. Varsovie: Musée

National, 1975.


_______________. “The United Kingdom of Makouria and Nobadia: A Medieval

 Nubian Anomaly.” In Egypt and Africa: Nubia from Prehistory

 to Islam, ed. W. V. Davies, 257-263. London: British Museum Press, 1991.


Burckhardt, John Lewis. Travels in Nubia. London: John Murray/Albemarle Street, 1819.


Davies, W.V. Egypt and Africa: Nubia from Prehistory to Islam. London: British Museum Press,



Burstein, Stanley ed. Ancient African Civilizations: Kush and Axum. Princeton, NJ:

Markus Wiener Publishers, 1997.


Faraji, Salim. The Roots of Nubian Christianity Uncovered. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2012.


Grillmeier, Aloys. Christ in Christian Tradition: Vol. 2 From the Council of Chalcedon (451) to

Gregory the Great (590-604): Part 4 The Church of Alexandria with Nubia and Ethiopia

after 451. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1996.


Łajtar, Adam and Jacques Van Der Vliet. Nubian Voices: Studies in Christian Nubian Culture.

Warsaw: The Journal of Juristic Papyrology, 2011.


Obłuski, Arthur. The Rise of Nobadia: Social Changes in Northern Nubia in Late Antiquity.

Warsaw: The Journal of Juristic Papyrology, 2014.


Plumley, J.M. “New Light on the Kingdom of Dotawo.” Études nubiennes. Colloque de

Chantilly, 2-6 juillet 1975. Bibliothèque d’étude 77 (1978): 231-241.


Ruffini, Giovanni R. The Bishop, the Eparch, and the King: Old Nubian Texts from Qasr Ibrim

(P. QI IV). Warsaw: The Journal of Juristic Papyrology, 2014.


________________. Medieval Nubia: A Social and Economic History. Oxford: Oxford

University Press, 2012.


Shinnie, Peter L. Ancient Nubia. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009.


Spaulding, Jay. “Medieval Christian Nubia and the Islamic World: A Reconsideration of

the Baqt Treaty.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 28 (1995): 577-594.


____________. “The Funj: A Reconsideration.” The Journal of African History 13

(1972): 39-53.


Taylor, John H. Egypt and Nubia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.


Welsby, Derek A. The Medieval Kingdoms of Nubia: Pagans, Christians and Muslims along the

Middle Nile. London: The British Museum Press, 2002.


Williams, Bruce. “Studies in the Later History of Nubia.” Journal of Near Eastern

                   Studies 64 (2005): 309-311.


Žabkar, Louis V. “The Eparch of Nubia as King.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 22

(1963): 217-219.





Conti Russini, Carlo. Storia d’Etiopia. Bergamo: istituto italiano d’arti grafiche, 1928.


Getahun Solomon Addis & Wudu Tafete Kassu, Culture and Customs of Ethiopia. Santa

Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2014.


Irvine, A.K. “On the Identity of Habashat in the South Arabian Inscriptions.” JSS 10 (1965):



Munro-Hay, Stuart. Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh

University Press, 1991.


Isaac, Ephraim. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tawahido Church. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2012.


Kidane, Dawit Worku. The Ethics of Zär’a Ya’ɘqob: A Reply to the Historical and Religious

                  Violence in the Seventeenth Century Ethiopia. Rome: Editrice Pontificia Università

Gregoriana, 2012.


Marcus, Harold G. A History of Ethiopia, 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press,



Uhlig, Siegbert. “Ge’ez.” in Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, 732-735. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz

Verlag, 2005.


Ullendorff, Edward. The Ethiopians: An Introduction to Country and People, 2nd ed. Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 1965.



North Africa


Bakker, Henk, Paul van Geest and Hans van Loon. Cyprian of Carthage: Studies in His Life,

Language, and Thought. Leuven: Peeters, 2010.


Brent, Allen. Cyprian and Roman Carthage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.


Chadwick, Henry. Augustine of Hippo: A Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.


Dunn, Geoffrey D. Cyprian and the Bishops of Rome: Questions of Papal Primacy in the Early

Church. Strathfield: St Pauls Publications, 2007.


Dupont, Anthony, Matthew Alan Gaumer and Mathijs Lamberigts. The Uniquely African

Controversy: Studies on Donatist Christianity. Leuven: Peeters, 2015.


Evers, Alexander. Church, Cities, and People: A Study of the Plebs in the Church and Cities of

Roman Africa in Late Antiquity. Leuven: Peeters, 2010.


Elizabeth W.B. Fentress, Numidia and the Roman Army: Social, Military and Economic Aspects

of the Frontier Zone. Oxford: BAR International, 1979.


Frend, W.H.C. The Donatist Church: A Movement of Protest in Roman North Africa, 2nd ed.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.


Gonzalez, Eliezer. The Fate of the Dead in Early Third Century North African Christianity.

Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2014.


Hoyos, Dexter. Mastering the West: Rome and Carthage at War. Oxford: Oxford University

Press, 2015.


Keleher, James P. Saint Augustine’s Notion of Schism in the Donatist Controversy. Mundelein,

IL: Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary, 1961.


Merrills, A.H. Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa

Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004.


Oden, Thomas C. Early Libyan Christianity: Uncovering a North African Tradition. Downers Grove, IL:

InterVarsity Press, 2011.


Papandrea, James L. Novatian: On the Trinity, Letters to Cyrpian of Carthage, Ethical Treatises.

Turnhout: Brepols, 2015.


Ployd, Adam. Augustine, the Trinity, and the Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.


Tilley, Maureen A. Donatist Martyr Stories: The Church in Conflict in Roman North Africa

Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996.



Race in Antiquity


Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, 3 vols. New Brunswick, NJ:

Rutgers University Press, 1987.


Buell, Denise K. Why This New Race: Ethnic Reasoning in Early Christianity. New

York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2008.


Burguière, André and Raymond Grew. The Construction of Minorities: Cases for

Comparison Across Time and Around the World. Ann Arbor, MI: The University

of Michigan Press, 2001.


Byron, Gay. Symbolic Blackness and Ethnic Difference in Early Christianity. New York, NY: Routledge,



Diop, Cheikh Anta. The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press,



Gruen, Erich S. Rethinking the Other in Antiquity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.


Hall, Jonathan M. Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press, 1997.


______________. Hellenicity: Between Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago, IL: The

University of Chicago Press, 2002.


Haar Romeny, Bas ter. Religious Origins of Nations? The Christian Communities of the

Middle East. Leiden: Brill, 2010.


Isaac, Benjamin. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.


Johnson, Aaron P. Ethnicity and Argument in Eusebius’ Praeparatio Evangelica.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.


______________. Religion and Identity in Porphyry of Tyre: The Limits of Hellenism in

Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.


Kennedy, Rebecca F., C. Syndor Roy & Max L. Goldman, Race and Ethnicity in the Classical

World: An Anthology of Primary Sources in Translation. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett

Publishing Company, 2013.


McCoskey, Denise. Race: Antiquity and its Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.


Snowden, Frank M. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. Cambridge, MA:

Belknap Press, 1971.